August 31, 2009

Heal The world

Theres a place in
Your heart
And I know that it is love
And this place could
Be much
Brighter than tomorrow
And if you really try
Youll find theres no need
To cry
In this place youll feel
Theres no hurt or sorrow


There are ways
To get there
If you care enough
For the living
Make a little space
Make a better place...

Heal the world
Make it a better place
For you and for me
And the entire human race
There are people dying
If you care enough
For the living
Make a better place
For you and for me

If you want to know why
Theres a love that
Cannot lie
Love is strong
It only cares for
Joyful giving
If we try
We shall see
In this bliss
We cannot feel
Fear or dread
We stop existing and
Start living

Then it feels that always
Loves enough for
Us growing
So make a better world
Make a better world...

Heal the world
Make it a better place
For you and for me
And the entire human race
There are people dying
If you care enough
For the living
Make a better place
For you and for me

And the dream we were
Conceived in
Will reveal a joyful face
And the world we
Once believed in
Will shine again in grace
Then why do we keep
Strangling life
Wound this earth
Crucify its soul
Though its plain to see
This world is heavenly
Be gods glow

We could fly so high
Let our spirits never die
In my heart
I feel you are all
My brothers
Create a world with
No fear
Together we cry
Happy tears
See the nations turn
Their swords
Into plowshares

We could really get there
If you cared enough
For the living
Make a little space
To make a better place...

Heal the world
Make it a better place
For you and for me
And the entire human race
There are people dying
If you care enough
For the living
Make a better place
For you and for me

Heal the world
Make it a better place
For you and for me
And the entire human race
There are people dying
If you care enough
For the living
Make a better place
For you and for me

Heal the world
Make it a better place
For you and for me
And the entire human race
There are people dying
If you care enough
For the living
Make a better place
For you and for me

There are people dying
If you care enough
For the living
Make a better place
For you and for me

There are people dying
If you care enough
For the living
Make a better place
For you and for me

You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me
You and for me






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August 10, 2009

Why You Should Use Graphic Templates

When it comes to graphics, most Internet marketers shy away from using graphic templates whether it's ebook covers, website layouts or promotional banners because they firmly believe that by using graphic templates, they are tarnishing their own business. They want to own a unique identity and hence will always find a professional graphic designer to do the job. Well, you're in for a big surprise!

When you purchase a graphic template, you will be able to customize it to an extent or even build a totally new design based on it! What's the point of using the template then, you say? Well, it serves as a source of inspiration and ideas for a totally new design. You can't derive anything from a blank canvas, right?

On top of that, you are actually saving a lot of precious time that you can otherwise spend on more important matters like developing new products or market your products. When you buy a pre-made template, you only need to edit a thing or two to give it an identity of your own, and that gives you more time and flexibility to work on other stuff.

Okay, let's say you argue that hiring a designer to do the job is equally fast. That may be true but don't forget, hiring a professional designer to do a custom design for you will cost you a lot of money. Unless you need a totally unique identity that you are aiming to establish firmly in your niche market, you don't need to get a designer to design it for you.

Not all graphic templates are suitable, so you have to be careful when choosing one. Consider quality over the price, and you're on your way to creating a positive image for your business while saving more time for more productive chores!

read the previous article Why Hire A Designer?




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Why Hire A Designer?

A lot of online business owners start with no money. They have to do everything themselves -- the preparation of a product, the development of a marketing strategy, the actual building of a website to cater to their product's marketing needs. As their business expands over time, they will find that their simple "homemade" site might not be enough to cover everything, and they will have to take a day or two away to simply dedicate that to the website expansion.


Sounds familiar? Chances are, you're someone who started everything with no money too, so you're pretty skeptical when it comes to giving away your money in exchange for something that you could have done yourself. However, there is a lot more to hiring a designer than just finishing up a job that you don't want to do.

When you hire a web designer to do your job for you, you are doing more than just handing over the "dirty job" to someone else. In fact, by paying a little money, you can let the designer worry about the little annoyances that always evade the main picture and only come haunting when you're halfway through the job. That way, you will be more focused and have more time to spend on your actual business strategy.

On the other hand, the designers you hire a professionals so they are good at what they do. By outsourcing your web design jobs to them, you won't have to worry when problems surface because you can always get them to fix it for you. Again, they will be able to pin point the problem and fix it faster than you probably will be able to.

Also, the work you pay for will turn out more professional than what you can achieve because the designers have been doing it longer than you have. After all, they do it for a living so they have to be good!

So, remember to not just work your business, but grow your business too!

read the previous article Who Is Your Audience?



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Who Is Your Audience?

Understanding the type of people who visit your site is a very important task because you can use that information to enhance your site to suit them. As a result, you will gain more loyal returning visitors that come back again and again for more.

What is the age level and what kind of knowledge does your audience have? A layman might linger around a general site on gardening, but a professional botanist might turn his nose at the very same site. Similarly, a regular person will leave a site filled with astronomy abstracts but a well educated university graduate will find that site interesting.

Take your audience's emotional state into consideration when building your site. If a very irritated visitor searches for a solution and comes across your site, you will want to make sure you offer the solution right up front and sell or promote your product to him second. In this way, the visitor will put his trust in you for offering the solution to his problems and is more likely to buy your product when you offer it to him after that.

When you design the layout for your site, you have to take into account the characteristics of your audience. Are they old or young people? Are they looking for trends or are they just looking for information served without any icing on the cake? For example, introducing a new, exciting game with a simple, straightforward black text against white background page will definitely turn prospects away. Make sure your design suits your site's general theme.

Try to sprinkle colloquial language in your sites sparingly where you see fit and you will create a sense that your audience is on common ground with you. This in turn builds a trusting relationship between you and your audience, which will come in useful should you want to market a product to your audience.


read the previous article When Is the Right Time to Redesign?



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When Is the Right Time to Redesign?

If you run a website, chances are you often wonder whether it is the right time to do a total redesign of the layout of your website. Here are some points to consider:

Are you thinking of a redesign just for the sake of it? If you answered yes to that question, it is not yet the right time to do a redesign. Remember, a design serves a specific purpose. If you are not sure whether to do an overhaul of your site, keep in mind that your current design might have a specific purpose that you might not know about. You will lose that function if you do a redesign.

On the other hand, if your website has had the same website design since 1990, perhaps it is high time to do a redesign. The last thing you would ever want to happen to your site is when visitors leave your site without taking a look at your content just because the design is old fashioned. If this is your case, here are some points to ponder before doing a redesign.

Redesigning your website is like performing plastic surgery on it. Your website loses its current identity (for the better or worse) and your regular visitors might not recognise your new design at first glance. You risk losing them just because they thought they landed on the wrong page. Hence, it is very important that you retain a characteristic feature from your old layout. Perhaps it is the logo of your site; perhaps it is the same text style for the title for your site.

To play it safe, put a poll on your site to let your visitors do the talking. If they think it is necessary for the website to have a fresh look, give it to them!

read the previous article Web Design Elements You Should Avoid Having on Your Site



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When Is the Right Time to Redesign?

If you run a website, chances are you often wonder whether it is the right time to do a total redesign of the layout of your website. Here are some points to consider:

Are you thinking of a redesign just for the sake of it? If you answered yes to that question, it is not yet the right time to do a redesign. Remember, a design serves a specific purpose. If you are not sure whether to do an overhaul of your site, keep in mind that your current design might have a specific purpose that you might not know about. You will lose that function if you do a redesign.

On the other hand, if your website has had the same website design since 1990, perhaps it is high time to do a redesign. The last thing you would ever want to happen to your site is when visitors leave your site without taking a look at your content just because the design is old fashioned. If this is your case, here are some points to ponder before doing a redesign.

Redesigning your website is like performing plastic surgery on it. Your website loses its current identity (for the better or worse) and your regular visitors might not recognise your new design at first glance. You risk losing them just because they thought they landed on the wrong page. Hence, it is very important that you retain a characteristic feature from your old layout. Perhaps it is the logo of your site; perhaps it is the same text style for the title for your site.

To play it safe, put a poll on your site to let your visitors do the talking. If they think it is necessary for the website to have a fresh look, give it to them!

read the previous article Web Design Elements You Should Avoid Having on Your Site



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Web Design Elements You Should Avoid Having on Your Site

As a web designer, you should design your websites to give your visitors the greatest ease of use, the best impression and most important of all a welcoming experience. It doesn't matter if you had the greatest product in the whole world -- if your website is poorly done you won't be able to sell even one copy of it because visitors will be driven off your website by the lousy design.

When I'm talking about a "good design", I'm not only talking about a good graphical design. A professional web design will be able to point out that there are many components which contribute to a good website design -- accessibility design, interface or layout design, user experience design and of course the most straightforward, which is graphic design.

Hence, I have highlighted some features of the worst web designs I've come across. Hopefully, you will be able to compare that against your own site as a checklist and if anything on your site fits the criteria, you should know it's high time to take serious action!

1) Background music

Unless you are running a site which promotes a band, a CD or anything related to music, I would really advise you to stay away from putting looping background music onto your site. It might sound pleasant to you at first, but imagine if you ran a big site with hundreds of pages and everytime a visitor browses to another page on your site, the background music starts playing again. If I were your visitor, I'd just turn off my speakers or leave your site. Moreover, they just add to the visitors burden when viewing your site -- users on dial up connections will have to wait longer just to view your site as it is meant to be viewed.

2) Extra large/small text size

As I said, there is more to web design than purely graphics -- user accessibility is one big part of it too! You should design the text on your site to be legible and reasonably sized to enable your visitors to read it without straining their eyes. No matter how good the content of your website or your sales copy is, if it's illegible you won't be selling anything!

3) Popup windows

Popup windows are so blatantly used to display advertisements that in my mind, 90% of popup windows are not worth my attention so I just close them on instinct everytime each one manages to pass through my popup blocker (yes, I do have one like many users out there!) and, well, pops up on my screen. Imagine if you had a very important message to convey and you put it in a popup window that gets killed most of the time it appears on a visitor's screen. Your website loses its function immediately!

In concluding this article, let me remind you that as a webmaster your job is to make sure your website does what it's meant to do effectively. Don't let some minor mistakes stop your site from functioning optimally!


read the previous article Ways To Improve Sales Through Your Website



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Ways To Improve Sales Through Your Website

Anyone who has been marketing online knows that the lifeblood of a business is the traffic of a site. More visitors equal more sales. However, here are some ways that you can tweak your sites with to improve sales without the need to get more visitors.

The first method is to weave in your personal touch in your sales message. Nobody wants to be sold to by a total stranger, but many people will buy what their close friends recommend to them. If you can convince your audience that you are a personal friend who has their best interest at heart, they will be convinced to buy your products. Remember to speak to an individual in your salesletter, not to your whole audience.

The second method is to publish testimonials and comments from your customers. A good idea would be to publish both good and bad comments; that way prospects will be really convinced that these testimonials are real. When prospects see testimonials on your website, they will have the confidence to buy from you because human beings follow the herd mentality; when others have bought and proven it authentic, they will jump on the bandwagon and buy too.

Use visual representations for the problems and solutions that your product offers. Not everyone will read your text copy from the head to the tail, but most people will pay attention to images on your website.

Offer quality bonuses to accompany the product. When you offer bonuses that complement your product, your prospects will feel it's a very good deal and it would be stupid to miss it. Be sure to state the monetary value of your bonuses so that people will be even more compelled to grab your good bargain.

Lastly, ask for the sale! Many people entice their prospects with the benefits of their product, sell to them with stories of how it has solved many problems, even offered killer bonuses but forget to ask for the sale. Give a clear instruction on how to buy your product (e.g. "click the button to buy now!").


read the previous article The Importance of A Good Design



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The Importance of A Good Design

Your website is the hub of your online business; it is the virtual representation of your company whether your company exists physically or not. When you are doing business online, people cannot see you physically like how they could if they were dealing with an offline company. Hence, people do judge you by your covers. This is where a good design comes in.

Imagine if you are running an offline company. Would you allow your salespersons to be dressed in shabby or casual clothes when they are dealing with your customers? By making your staff wear professionally, you are telling your customers that you do care about quality. This works simply because first impressions matter.

Similarly, the same case is with your website. If your website is put together shabbily and looks like a 5 minute "quick fix", you are literally shouting to your visitors that you are not professional and you do not care for quality.

On the opposite, if you have a totally professional looking website layout, you are giving your visitors the perception that you have given meticulous attention to every detail and you care about professionalism. You are organised, focused and you really mean business.

On the other hand, you should also have anything related to your company well designed. From business cards to letterheads to promotional brochures, every little bit matters. This is because as you grow your business, these items become the face of your business. Once again, think of the "salesperson dressed shabbily" anology, and you will get my point.

read the previous article Search Engine Friendly Pages


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Search Engine Friendly Pages

There is no point in building a website unless there are visitors coming in. A major source of traffic for most sites on the Internet is search engines like Google, Yahoo!, MSN, Altavista and so on. Hence, by designing a search engine friendly site, you will be able to rank easily in search engines and obtain more visitors.


Major search engines use programs called crawlers or robots to index websites to list on their search result pages. They follow links to a page, reads the content of the page and record it in their own database, pulling up the listing as people search for it.

If you want to make your site indexed easily, you should avoid using frames on your website. Frames will only confuse search engine robots and they might even abandon your site because of that. Moreover, frames make it difficult for users to bookmark a specific page on your site without using long, complicated scripts.

Do not present important information in Flash movies or in images. Search engine robots can only read text on your source code so if you present important words in Flash movies and images rather than textual form, your search engine ranking will be affected dramatically.

Use meta tags accordingly on each and every page of your site so that search engine robots know at first glance what that particular page is about and whether or not to index it. By using meta tags, you are making the search engine robot's job easier so they will crawl and index your site more frequently.

Stop using wrong HTML tags like "font" to style your page. Use CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) instead because they are more effective and efficient. By using CSS, you can eliminate redundant HTML tags and make your pages much lighter and faster to load.

read the previous article Reducing Load Time Through Image Optimization



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Reducing Load Time Through Image Optimization

Even though more and more Internet users switch to broadband every year, a large portion of the web's population is still running on good old dialup connections. It is therefore unwise to count them out of the equation when you're designing your website, and a very major consideration we have to make for dialup users is the loading time of your website.



Generally, all the text on your website will be loaded in a very short time even on a dialup connection. The culprit of slow-loading sites is mainly large images on your website, and it is very important to strike a delicate balance between using just enough images to attract your users and not to bog down the overall loading time of your site.

You should also go to a greater length and optimize every image on your site to make sure it loads in the least time possible. What I really mean is to use image editing software to remove unnecessary information on your images, and thereby effectively reducing the file size of your image without affecting its appearance.

If you own Photoshop, it will be obvious to you that when you save an image as a JPEG file, a dialog box appears and lets you choose the "quality" of the JPEG image -- normally a setting of 8 to 10 is good enough as it will preserve the quality of your image while saving it at a small file size. If you do not have Photoshop, there are many free image compressors online that you can download and use to reduce your image's file size.

On the other hand, you can opt to save your images in PNG format to get the best quality at the least file size. You can also save your images in GIF format -- the image editing software clips away all the color information not used in your image, hence giving you the smallest file size possible. However, saving in GIF format will often compromise the appearance of your image, so make your choice wisely!


read the previous article Pros and Cons of Flash-based Sites




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Pros and Cons of Flash-based Sites

Flash-based sites have been a craze since the past few years, and as Macromedia compiles more and more great features into Flash, we can only predict there will be more and more flash sites around the Internet. However, Flash based sites have been disputed to be bloated and unnecessary. Where exactly do we draw the line? Here's a simple breakdown.


The good:

Interactivity

Flash's Actionscript opens up a vast field of possibilities. Programmers and designers have used Flash to create interactve features ranging from very lively feedback forms to attractive Flash-based games. This whole new level of interactivity will always leave visitors coming back for more.

A standardized site

With Flash, you do not have to worry about cross-browser compatibility. No more woes over how a certain css code displays differently in Internet Explorer, Firefox and Opera. When you position your site elements in Flash, they will always appear as they are as long as the user has Flash Player installed.

Better expression through animation

In Flash, one can make use of its animating features to convey a message in a much more efficient and effective way. Flash is a lightweight option for animation because it is vector based (and hence smaller file sizes) as opposed to real "movie files" that are raster based and hence much larger in size.

The bad and the ugly:

The Flash player

People have to download the Flash player in advance before they can view Flash movies, so by using Flash your visitor range will decrease considerably because not everyone will be willing to download the Flash player just to view your site. You'll also have to put in additional work in redirecting the user to the Flash download page if he or she doesn't have the player installed.

Site optimization

If your content was presented in Flash, most search engines wouldn't be able to index your content. Hence, you will not be able to rank well in search engines and there will be less traffic heading to your site.

Loading time

Users have to wait longer than usual to load Flash content compared to regular text and images, and some visitors might just lose their patience and click the Back button. The longer your Flash takes to load, the more you risk losing visitors.

The best way to go is to use Flash only when you absolutely need the interactivity and motion that comes with it. Otherwise, use a mixture of Flash and HTML or use pure text if your site is purely to present simple textual and graphical information.

read the previous article Mistakes To Avoid When Using Web Templates

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Mistakes To Avoid When Using Web Templates

Website templates are very affordable and they save you a lot of effort and time when you want to create a new layout for your website. However, a lot of people make mistakes in the process of choosing and using a web template and end up with something that was unlike the image they had in mind. Here are some guides to help you avoid those mistakes.

The first obvious mistake you should be aware of is using a template that is very popular. If many people use the same template, your website will not appear unique at all and your credibility as a solid, different website will be tarnished. In other words, you will appear generic just like your next-door neighbours.

To whole point of using a web template is to save time and effort. You just change the title and appropriate details and you're done. The biggest mistake one makes is to customize the template beyond recognisation. While that may be good in the sense that you're creating a unique graphic, you're defying the very purpose of using a web template -- saving time and effort.

However, on the opposite side, if a template you purchase is suitable but some changes must be made to suit your site's theme, then you will have to take some time to make the changes. For example, you can find a very nice template that suits your hobby site except the original designer has put an image of stamps in the header. You can find images of garden plants and spades to replace the stamps for your gardening hobby site. However, do only make the necessary changes and don't redesign the whole template.

In some circumstances, some people simply make the wrong choice of templates. This is a very subjective issue but you have to be careful in selecting templates to suit your audience. Do not choose templates just because they are pretty, choose them because they serve your purpose.

read the previous article Make It Easy To Buy From Your Site

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Make It Easy To Buy From Your Site

Convincing your prospects to purchase from you is a hard job, but have you ever thought that you're making the process twice as difficult for both parties if your prospects are convinced but don't know how to buy from you? No matter how good you are at convincing your prospects, they won't buy if they find the process cumbersome.


First, you will want to check that people can find your order form easily and hassle-free. You can write a clear, concise paragraph to direct your prospects to your order form so that you can minimize the chances of them getting lost. You can also reduce the chances of losing prospects by putting a prominent link to your order page from every other page on your site.

Also, do you offer multiple payment options? Some people may feel comfortable paying via Paypal, some may only want to pay with their credit card and others might want to send a cheque. The more options you offer, the better your chances of covering your prospects' desired payment method. After all, it wouldn't make any sense to sell hard to a prospect only to find that they won't be able to pay you when they want to.

On the other hand, you will want to prove that you are a credible merchant. Is your order form secured using encryption technology? You would want to look into SSL for this. You can also offer a money back guarantee so that people will feel confident about buying from you. How about after sales support? Who do they contact when they have problems after purchasing?

Alternatively, you can add customer testimonials, your contact information, address, and so on to boost your prospects' confidence. Make them feel safe about buying something from you, a total stranger to them on the other end of the Internet.

As a conclusion, it would be very pitiful if you sold hard and sold well to a prospect and something goes wrong when he or she is ready to pay. Eliminate any chances of that to maximize your profits!

read the previous article click here


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August 9, 2009

Building Your Mailing List with Downloads

A mailing list is the lifeblood of your online business. The old adage "the money is in the list" cannot be true enough -- if you had a targeted list of prospects to contact each time you have a new product, you will be able to save a lot of effort by marketing it to your existing list of targeted prospects.

You can actually build up a targeted list of prospects that are interested in your products by offering a relevant download on your website. For example, let's take a look at a very good example -- apple.com. When you download the free iTunes and Quicktime software from their site, they will ask you to fill in an optional name and email form so that they can send you offers on songs that you can purchase via -- guess where -- iTunes!

In reality, you do not need to offer such a "heavyweight" download such as a full-feature software like iTunes. You can attract prospects equally well with some quality freebies such as a simple report, a free wallpaper, and so on. The important thing is that your download offers enough value for the prospect to be willing to give away his/her own email address to get it.

However, slapping together a simple download and putting a link on your website won't be enough to attract qualified prospects. You will have to do some homework in order for your lead-generating mechanism to work well for you.

First of all, you must place your download form prominently on your website. Preferably, dedicate a page to it and link to that page from every other page of your website. That way, there is no way your visitors cannot find the download page, and when they do, you'll get some of them converted into your prospects!

Also, you have to put a little effort into promoting your download. Explain and elaborate on the values of the download, and why your visitors should download it. You might think why would anyone want to pass on a freebie, but most of your visitors would be too lazy to take the effort to download it because most of their downloads just sit on the harddisk collecting virtual dust. It is hence important to show your visitors why they should download your freebie.

read the previous article Improve Usability of Your Website

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Improve Usability of Your Website

No matter how brilliant your website design is, if it is hard to reach the content of your site then your site is as useful as an empty shell. Here are some tips to improve the usability of your website to ensure it serves its functions optimally.

The first method is to make sure the typography of your content is suitable. If you have large blocks of text, make sure to use CSS to space out the lines accordingly. The longer a single line of text is, the greater the line-height of each line should be. Also, make sure the font size of your text is big enough to read easily. Some sites have 10-pixel-tall text in Verdana font; while that may look neat and tidy, you have to really strain your eyes to read the actual text.

Make it easy for visitors to find content that they want on your site. If you have thousands of articles on your site and a certain visitor wants to find one single article from that pile, you have to provide a feasible means to enable visitors to do that without hassle. Be it an SQL-driven database search engine or just a glossary or index of articles that you have, providing such a feature will make sure your visitors can use your site with ease.

Ensure that your site loads fast if you do not want to lose visitors. Most internet users will leave a website if it doesn't load completely within 15 seconds, so make sure the crème de la crème of your website is delivered to the visitors as soon as possible to retain their attention.

Last of all, test each and every link on your site before it goes online. There is nothing more effective in tarnishing your professional image than broken links, so be very careful about that.

read the previous post The grandness of a Sitemap


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July 30, 2009

The grandness of a Sitemap

A sitemap is often considered redundant in the process of building a website, and that's indeed the fact if you made a sitemap for the sake of having one. By highlighting the importance of having a well constructed sitemap, you'll be able to tailor your own sitemap to suit your own needs.


1) Navigation purposes

A sitemap literally acts as a map of your site. If your visitors browses your site and gets lost between the thousands of pages on your site, they can always refer to your sitemap to see where they're, and navigate through your pages with the utmost ease.

2) Conveying your site's theme

When your visitors load up your sitemap, they'll get the gist of your site within a very short amount of time. There's no need to get the "big picture" of your site by reading through each page, and by doing that you'll be saving your visitors' time.

3) Site optimization purposes

When you create a sitemap, you're actually creating a single page which contains links to every single page on your site. Imagine what happens when search engine robots hit this page -- they'll follow the links on the sitemap and naturally every single page of your site gets indexed by search engines! It is also for this purpose that a link to the sitemap has to be placed prominently on the front page of your website.

4) Organization and relevance

A sitemap enables you to have a complete bird's eye view of your site structure, and whenever you need to add new content or new sections, you'll be able to take the existing hierarchy into consideration just by glancing at the sitemap. As a result, you'll have a perfectly organized site with everything sorted according to their relevance.

From the above reasons, it's most crucial to implement a sitemap for website projects with a considerable size. Through this way, you'll be able to keep your website easily accesible and neatly organized for everyone.

read our previous article click here


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July 25, 2009

How To Have Websites Built For You The Cheap Way

Normally, if you desire to have professional designers custom build your site, you must be prepared to looker out at littlest some hundred dollars. All this can change if you know wherever to find the best deals, the best designs for the lowest price. Here's a rough guide:

First, you must understand that it's a rip turned to get companies to design websites for you. Have you ever seen those advertisements in newspaper classified advertisement sections that offer a 5-page website at $500? These companies are established companies with physical locations, therefore they've to increase the amount they charge to bribe some overheads: office rent, designer's wages, advertising costs etc..

Therefore, it aspiring knowing find freelance designers who work from home. These people are often working from home so they don't have a high operation cost like that of a company. On the other hand, they'll be able to design images with quality similar to those of designers from big companies, so it's a "no-brainer" choice.

However, choose freelancers with care. The best way commotion this wishful to belong to elance.com. There, you can post the abstract of your project and get thousands of freelancers to bid on your project, so you'll surely overcome deal. On top of that, you'll be able to choose the designers based on their experience, past transactions and ratings, so your value for money is secured.

Another route you are able to take is to design your website yourself. Flirt with it, if you only need 5 simple pages to present some simple information, why waste hundreds of dollars for it? Just spend a bit time to sit down and do it yourself. You'll be able to design your own sites even if you don't know a single line of HTML code with the help of WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) programs such as Microsoft Frontpage, Macromedia Dreamweaver and so forth. y

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Aplikasi resin komposit pada kavitas kelas V dan VI

Aplikasi resin komposit pada kavitas kelas V

Gambar 1. 37 Aplikasi resin komposit pada kavitas kelas V anterior


a. Enamel hipoplastik pada labial I1
b. Dilakukan preparasi modifikasi pada bagian tersebut menggunakan diamond bur
c. Gel etsa diaplikasikan pada kavitas dengan syringe
d. Aplikasikan resin bonding, sinari 20 detik.
e. Aplikasikan resin komposit light cure
f. Kontur resin komposit dengan menggunakan titanium nitride instrument
g. Sinari 40 detik
h. Digunakan alat (warna orange) untuk proteksi sinar
i. Lakukan finishing dengan fine finishing diamond bur
j. Lakukan polishing dengan silicone rubber
k. Restorasi selesai


Aplikasi resin komposit pada kavitas kelas VI

Gambar 1.38 Preparasi dan aplikasi resin komposit pada Kelas VI

A. Terdapat karies pada Cusp bukal P1 RA
B. Jaringan karies dibuang dengan menggunakan small round bur
C. Cusp dipreparasi dengan flame-shape atau round diamond bur. Setelah dilakukan preparasi pada cusp dengan retensi berupa undercut padadasar kavitas, dilakukan etsa dan pemberian bonding. Setelah itu resin komposit ditempatkan pada kavitas dan dikontur serta dipoles.

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Tehnik Sandwich

1.11 Tehnik Sandwich

  • Penggunaan Glass ionomer sebagai basis di bawah restorasi resin komposit.
  • Untuk kavitas yang dalam.
  • Untuk meminimalisir microleakage -->meningkatkan kekuatan dan perlekatan restorasi. Glass ionomer berikatan secara kimia pada dentin.
  • Digunakan GIC Tipe III atau RMGIC (baik yang autocured maupun light cured)
  • Dianjurkan menggunakan microfiller composite

Gambar 1.38 a.Restorasi Sandwich terbuka dan b.Restorasi Sandwich tertutup


Prosedur pembuatan restorasi sandwich
Tabel 1.2 Prosedur restorasi sandwich pada kavitas klasII menggunakan GIC self cure dan resin Komposit self cure































Kavitas klas II yang dipreparasi konvensional dengan bevel dan retensi tambahan berbentuk dovetail.
Matriks dipasang pada bagian proksimal.
Pemberian kondisioner (asam polialkenoat 10%)pada dentin selama 10-15 detik, bilas dengan air, keringkan sebatas lembab.
Aplikasikan GIC tipe III bentuk sbg basis dengan P/L ratio = 3:1. Pada gambar yang digunakan adalah GIC jenis self-cure Maka selanjutnya perlu dilakukan etsa asam.
Lakukan etsa pada permukaan GIC yang akan berkontak dengan resin komposit dan dinding-dinding kavitas selama 15-20 detik atau sesuai dengan petunjuk pabrik. *
- Kavitas dibilas dengan air, tanpa tekanan, selama 1-2 menit.
Keringkan kavitas dengan sponge-pellet, atau disemprot udara perlahan / dengan chip-blower
Aplikasikan bonding agent secara tipis diamkan sekitar 10 detik agar zat pelarutnya menguap, semprot perlahan dengan pengering udara/ chip-blower, sinari 20 detik
Aplikasikan bahan resin komposit (sesuai dengan jenis resin komposit yang dipakai. Misal: pada gambar digunakan komposit self- cure)

Lakukan finishing dan polishing


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DIRECT COMPOSITE VENEER UNTUK KOREKSI DIASTEMA ATAU FRAKTUR INSISAL PENUH

1.12 DIRECT COMPOSITE VENEER UNTUK KOREKSI DIASTEMA ATAU FRAKTUR INSISAL PENUH

  • Menggunakan hybrid composite
  • Lakukan etsa 15 detik pada enamel yang telah dipreparasi. Cuci sampai bersih, keringkan.
  • Aplikasikan bahan bonding. Keringkan dan Sinari 20 detik.
  • Bagian labial gigi dilapisi resin komposit sewarna dentin mulai dari ginggiva dan di atasnya dilapisi komposit sewarna enamel
  • Bagian proksimal mesial untuk menghilangkan diastema, penambahan komposit dimulai dari bawah puncak ginggiva. Perbandingan lebar mesio-distal dengan panjang serviko-insisal yang baik adalah 3 : 4.


1.13 PEMBUATAN PASAK DAN INTI DARI RESIN KOMPOSIT

  • menggunakan makrofiller composite (dengan merk tertentu)

Prosedur :

  • Bila telah dirawat saluran akar
  • Bahan pengisi saluran akar (gutta percha) dikeluarkan sesuai kedalaman yang dibutuhkan menggunakan reamer. Lalu dibuat retensi pada saluran akar. Setelah preparasi saluran akar selesai, dilakukan pemilihan mahkota polikarbonat dan dipaskan dengan gigi yang akan direstorasi. Bagian dalam mahkota polikarbonat tersebut diolesi dengan bahan separasi. Isolasi jaringan di sekitar gigi dengan rubber dam untuk mencegah iritasi dari bahan resin terhadap ginggiva.
  • Selanjutnya saluran akar dikeringkan, resin komposit dimasukkan ke dalam saluran akar dengan menggunakan syringe secara berlebihan. Mahkota yang telah diulasi bahan separasi tadi selanjutnya diisi dengan resin komposit yang sama lalu disatukan dengan resin komposit yang ada di akar gigi. Bagian yang berlebihan dibuang sebelum mengeras. Sedangkan mahkota polikarbonat tetap dipertahankan selama 8 menit untuk mencapai pengerasan resin komposit. Setelah resin komposit mengeras, lepas mahkota polikarbonat. Selanjutnya dilakukan preparasi inti untuk menerima restorasi akhir.
  • Bila fraktur gigi tidak menyebabkan perforasi pulpa:Inti dibentuk dan ditahan dengan menggunakan pasak dentin. Indikasi untuk lanjut usia yang pulpanya mengalami penurunan.



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KOMPOMER

2. KOMPOMER

2.1 Komposisi Kompomer

Kompomer --> Komposit + Glass Ionomer

- Komponen resinnya: polycarboxylic acid + methacrylate -->ikatan silang antara gugus methacrylate-komposit-karboksil yang berdasarkan reaksi asam-basa seperti glass-ionomer

- Filler : barium/strontium fluorosilicate glass. 2,37 µm -9,36 µm

Sifat-sifat kompomer:
• Berisi pasta yaitu Ca, Al, F,
• Mengeras dengan polimerisasi C=C dari metakrilat (reaksi asam basa yang tertunda di antara glass dan molekul asam)
• Berikatan dengan gigi melalui bahan adhesif (memerlukan etsa asam)
• Kuat, biokomptabilitas dan kelarutan rendah
• Lebih kuat terhadap keausan daripada resin komposit
• Pelepasan Fluoride yang lebih rendah dari GIC. Pelepasan maksimal pada 24-48 jam pertama. Tetapi dapat mengabsorbsi Fluoride pada pemberian aplikasi fluoride topikal -->disimpan untuk cadangan pelepasan.

2.2 Polimerisasi Kompomer

Kompomer menggunakan sistem aktivasi sinar. Terdiri dari 2 tahap yaitu:
- Tahap 1 : aktivasi sinar tampak -->bahan restorasi mengeras
- Tahap 2 : terjadi reaksi asam basa secara perlahan

2.3 Keuntungan dan Kerugian

Mempunyai keuntungan yang hampir sama dengan resin komposit, :
- warna estetik
- Adanya pelepasan fluoride .
- Mudah untuk dioperasikan. Dikemas dalam satu komponen tunggal beebentuk pasta.
- Bersifat kariostasis dan Iritan terhadap pulpa sangat kecil
- Pembuangan jaringan tidak invasif
- Radiopak


Kerugian
- Penyusutan polimerisasi sebesar 2-3%
- Memerlukan etsa dan bonding, dan light curing unit
- Sensitifitas pasien dan operator terhadap komponen adhesive resin, khususnya (HEMA)
- Diskolorasi dan absorpsi air pada bagian marginal setelah beberapa tahun
- Secara kelseluruhan, sifat fisik lebih rendah daripada resin komposit dan GIC

2.4 Indikasi dan Kontraindikasi

Indikasi
- Kelas I decidui
- Kelas II decidui
- Kelas III
- Kelas V -->restorasi servikal dan karies akar sebab daya tahan terhadap abrasinya lebih bagus daripada resin komposit hibrid.
- Pit&fissure sealant

Kontraindikasi
- Klas I, Klas II, Klas IV, Klas VI
- Jika pasien mempunyai alergi terhadap satu atau lebih bahan restorasi resin, termasuk sistem adhesive.
- Pada kotak interproximal yang dalam, karena peningkatan jarak dari sumber cahaya.

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Desain Preparasi Kavitas untuk Restorasi Kompomer

2.5 Desain Preparasi Kavitas untuk Restorasi Kompomer

preparasi modifikasi (hanya membuang jaringan gigi yang karies/ membuang sesedikit mungkin jaringan gigi) atau bisa juga daerah enamel rod yang tidak terbuka dibuat bevel.

2.5.1 Kelas I decidui


Gambar 2.1 Aplikasi kompomer pada kavitas kelas I decidui
a. karies pada oklusal 64
b. Dipreparasi menggunakan 33o turbide bur
c. Bentuk ouline kavitas sebelum pengambilan seluruh karies
d. Karies dihilangkan dengan roun bur low speed menggunakan water cooling
e. Kavitas selesai dipreparasi dan diberikan liner yang sesuai
f. Aplikasikan etsa, bonding dan kompomer pada kavitas.
g. Restorasi sebelum diberi fissure sealant
h. Fissure sealant diaplikasikan untuk melindungi permukaan oklusal yang mudah karies (mencegah terjadinya karies sekunder akibat microleakage)

2.5.2 Kelas II decidui


Gambar 2. 1 preparasi kelas II dan aplikasi kompomer pada kelas II gigi sulung
a. Terdapat proksimal karies pada gigi 55 (karies telah dibuang)
Sebelum dirawat,pasien dianestesi dulu. Daerah kerja Telah isolasi dengan rubber dam
b. Dipreparasi menggunakan roun bur berbentuk boks
c. Terjadi pendarahan pada gingiva interdentalis
d. Pendarahan dihentikan dengan menggunakan ferric sulfat (astringident)
e. Matriks dan wedge dipasang.
f. Lakukan etsa asam dan Beri bahan bonding- disinar 20 detik.
g. Penempatan kompomer dalam kavitas
h. Kompomer disinar 40 detik
i. Tampak kompomer setelah disinar
j. Lakukan finishing dan polishing
k. Untuk tindakan preventif –diberi Pit&fissure sealant
l. Restorasi selesai.


2.5.3 Kelas III

Gambar 2.3 Aplikasi kompomer pada kavitas Kelas III
a. kavitas kelas III yang telah dipreparasi modifikasi dengan cavosurface dibevel
b. Pemasangan Poliester strip
c. Kavitas dietsa, diberi bonding
d. Aplikasikan kompomer pada kavitas
e. Lakukan light curing 40 detik dari labial sementara menekan kedua sisi poliester strip
f. Lakukan ligh curing dari bagian palatal 40 detik
g. Contoh konturing restorasi kompomer dengan hand instrument
h. Pemolesan kompomer dengan silicon rubber


2.5.4 Klas V

Gambar 2.4Preparasi kelas V dan Aplikasi kompomer pada kavitas Kelas V
a. Bila karies besar, dibentuk preparasi konvensional dengan bevel
b. Aplikasikan etsa dan bonding agent
c. Penempatan kompomer pada kavitas, dan dikontur
d. Beri sinar 40 detik

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Aplikasi Kompomer

2.6 Aplikasi Kompomer

1. Membersihkan permukaan gigi menggunakan pumice dan air untuk meningkatkan adesi.

2. Pada kasus enamel yang tidak dapat dietsa atau karies pada akar maka tahapnya sebagai berikut :

a. mengulaskan bahan kondisioner, keringkan dengan semprotan udara sampai keadaannya lembab, jangan sampai overdrying

b. Mengulaskan primer pada dentin, sinari dengan sinar biru . (didapatkan pula dentin conditioner dan primer dalam satu kemasan)

c. Pemberian dentin bonding agent, sinari dengan sinar biru 20 detik. (didapatkan pula primer dan bonding agent dalam satu kemasan)Setelah diberi bahan bonding  kavitas akan nampak mengkilap

Pada kavitas yang dalam :

a. Dasar kavitas diberi liner / basis semen
b. Dilakukan etsa asam pada enamel (prosedur sama seperti etsa untuk resin komposit)

3. Sebelum aplikasi bahan restorasi, gunakan matriks band untuk kelas V, kelas II decidui, seluloid strip untuk kelas III agar didapatkan adaptasi yang baik serta lakukan seleksi warna.

4. Aplikasikan bahan kompomer selapis demi lapis dengan ketebalan bahan maksimal 2mm. Seperti halnya resin komppsoit, kompomer sudah dikemas dalam bentuk pasta. Karena pengerasannya dengan aktivas sinar, kompomer ini tersedia dalam bentuk pasta tunggal saja.

5. Sinari selama 40 detik tiap lapisnya.

6. finishing dan polishing
Dilakukan setelah 24 jam dari aplikasi bahan restorasi. Tahap penyelesaian dan pemolesan sama dengan tahap untuk resin komposit.

berikut adalah daftar pustaka dari jurnal kami klik disini


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Daftar Pustaka Jurnal Komposit-Kompomer

Daftar Pustaka

Althoff, Olaf,. et al. Curing performance of a new-generation light-emitting diode dental curing unit. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135;1471-1479. Available from: http://jada.ada.org/ Accessed on : Oktober 18, 2008 11.50 am.

Andang, Milly Armilia, Taofik Hidayat. Bleaching dan Direct Composite Veneer pada Gigi Anterior yang Mengalami Perubahan Warna. Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi. 2002 : 14 (2); 37-43. Available from: http://resources.unpad.ac.id/ Accessed on : April 19, 2009 at 08.22 am.

Anggraeni, Ajeng., et al. Perlekatan koloni Streptococcus mutans pada permukaan resin komposit sinar tampak (The adherence of Streptococcus mutans colony to surface visible light composite resins). Maj.Ked.Gigi. (Dent.J.). 2005 ; 38(1): 8–11. Available from: http://www.journal.unair.ac.id/ Accessed on March 18,2009 at 2.07 pm.

Anusavice, K.J. 2004. Buku Ajar Ilmu Bahan Kedokteran Gigi Edisi 10. Jakarta : Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC. Pp:251-253.

Ascheim KW, Dale BG. 2001. Esthetic Dentistry A Clinical Approach to Techniques and Materials 2nd Ed. St Luois, Missouri : Mosby, Inc.

Baum,Lloyd. 1997. Buku Ajar Ilmu Konservasi Gigi. Edisi 3. Jakarta: EGC.pp; 252-291.

Christensen,J.Gordon. Self-etching Primer are Here. J Am Den Assoc. 2001: 132; 1041-1043. Available from: http://jada.ada.org/ Accessed on : April 1, 2009 11.50 am.

Combe, E.C. 1992. Notes on Dental Material. 6th Ed. Chicago: Churchill Livingstone. p.89-95.

Duggal,MS. et al. 2002. Restorative Technique in Pediatric Dentistry : an ilustrated guide to the restoration of carious primary teeth. 2nd Ed. UK: Martin Dunitz.pp: 103-114.

Eccles,J.D. 1994.The Conservation of the Teeth.2nd Ed. Oxford:Blackwell Sc.P.Ltd..pp; 75-124

Edwina A. M. Kidd, et al. 2003. Pickard’s Manual of Operative dentistry 8th Ed. New york : Oxford University Press

Hatrick CD, Eakle WS, Bird WF. 2003. Dental Materials Clinical Applications for Dental Assistants and Dental Hygienists. Missouri: Elsevier science

Hendra Adhita Dharsono. 2007. Restorasi Resin Komposit dengan Teknik Laminasi. Bandung: FKG Unpad. Available from: http://resources.unpad.ac.id/ Accessed on : April 1, 2009 at 08.22 am.

Hermina M, T2.003. Perbaikan Restorasi Komposit Klas I. Skripsi. USU. Available from : http://library.usu.ac.id/, Accessed on March 14, 2009. at 11.18 pm.

Kun ismiyatin. Handout Restorasi Resin Komposit. 2001. Surabaya: FKG-unair.

NN.Available from : http://www.praxis-hc.de/vollker_biodentis_Behandlung.html

NN. Available from : http://www.premusa.com/enews/2004_05_compcoreaf.asp

NN. Available from : http://www.stonepharm.com/SealAmerica.htm

Mitchell, David A and Laura Mitchell. 2005. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Dentistry 4th Ed. New York :Oxford University Press

Nainggolan, Morina. Penggunaan Resin Komposit sebagai Bahan Pasak dan Inti.. Skripsi.2002. Medan: FKG-USU. Available from : http://library.usu.ac.id/, Accessed on April 19, 2009. at 09.18 pm.

Panjaitan, Fransiska Uli Arta.2001. Kebaikan dan Keburukan Polyacid Modified Composite Resin (kompomer) Serta Penggunaannya Sebagai Bahan Tumpatan Gigi. Skripsi. Medan:Fkg-USU. Available from : http://library.usu.ac.id/, Accessed on April 20, 2009. at 11.18 am.

Silalahi, Dona Ivana. Bahan Restorasi Kompomer.Skripsi.2002. Medan: FKG-USU. Available from : http://library.usu.ac.id/, Accessed on April 19, 2009. at 09.18 pm.

Soncini, Jennifer Ann. et al. The longevity of amalgam versus compomer/composite restorations in posterior primary and permanent teeth: Findings From the New England Children’s Amalgam Trial. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138 (6):763-772. Available from: http://jada.ada.org/ Accessed on : April 19, 2009 at 08.50 am.

Studervant JR, Roberson TM, Heymann HO. 2002. Studenvart’s Art & Science of Operative Dentistry 4th Ed. St Luois, Missouri : Mosby, Inc.

Zhi, CHEN. Operative Dentistry 3. University Minnisota School of Dentistry.. Available from : http://202.114.104.243/jpkc/ysysbx/index.html Accessed on: April,19, 2009 at 08.3 am.


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July 17, 2009

Good Design Practices



Your website is where your business resides -- it's like the headquarter of an offline company. Hence, it is important to practise good design principles to makecertain your site gets hold of bent the maximum number of visitors and sells to as many people as possible. Make certain you have clear directions on the navigation of your website. The navigation menu should be uncluttered and concise so that visitors know how to navigate around your website without confusion.

Reduce the number of images on your website. They make your site load very slowly and more often than not they're very unnecessary. If you think any image is essential on your site, be sure you optimize them using image editing programs so that they've a minimum file size.

Keep your text paragraphs at a reasonable length. If a paragraph is too long, you should split it into seperate paragraphs so that the text blocks won't be too big. This is important because a block of text that's overlarge will deter visitors from reading your content.
Make certain your website complies to web standards at www.w3.org and make sure they're cross-browser compatible. If your website looks great in Internet Explorer but breaks horribly in Firefox and Opera, you'll lose out on many prospective visitors.

Avoid using scripting languages on your site unless it's absolutely necessary. Use scripting languages to handle or manipulate data, not to create visual effects on your website. Heavy scripts will loosen up the loading time of your site and even crash some browsers. Also, scripts are not supported across all browsers, so some visitors might miss important information because of that.

Use CSS to style your page content because they save many work by styling all elements on your website in one go.


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July 13, 2009

Generating Revenue With Good Planning


For anything to work well, care must be taken to make firm, workable plans to execute it and the same goes for website designs. With a well thought out website design, you will be able to create a site that generates multiple streams of revenue for you. In fact, may websites turn into online wasteland because they are not well planned and do not get a single visitor. Gradually, the webmaster will not be motivated to update it anymore and it turns into wasted cyberspace.

The crucial point of planning your site is optimizing it for revenue if you want to gain any income from the site. Divide your site into major blocks, ordered by themes, and start building new pages and subsections in those blocks. For example, you might have a "food" section, an "accomodation" section and an "entertainment" section for a tourism site. You can then write and publish relevant articles in the respective sections to attract a stream of traffic that comes looking for further information.

When you have a broader, better-defined scope of themes for your website, you can sell space on your pages to people interested in advertising on your page. You can also earn from programs like Google's Adsense and Yahoo! Search Marketing if people surf to those themed pages and click on the ads. For this very reason, the advertisement blocks on your pages need to be relevant to the content, so a themed page fits that criteria perfectly.

As Internet becomes more widespread, advertising on the Internet will bear more results than on magazines or offline media. Hence, start tapping in on this lucrative stream of profit right away!


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5 Ways to have loyal visitors


Everyone who has a website or web log (blog) certainly they want to have good traffic of their website and then monetize their website, maybe as publisher or review product. A lot of successful websites depend on returning visitors to account for a major part of their traffic. Returning visitors are easier to convert into paying customers because the more often they return to a site, the more trust they have in that site. The credibility issue just melts away. Hence, keep your visitors coming back to your site with the following methods:
1) Start a forum, chatroom or shoutbox
When you start a forum, chatroom or shoutbox, you are providing your visitors a place to voice their opinions and interact with their peers -- all of them are visitors of your site. As conversations build up, a sense of community will also follow and your visitors will come back to your site almost religiously every day.

2) Start a web log (blog)
Keep an online journal, or more commonly known as a blog, on your site and keep it updated with latest news about yourself. Human beings are curious creatures and they will keep their eyes glued to the monitor if you post fresh news frequently. You will also build up your credibility as you are proving to them that there is also a real life person behind the website.

3) Carry out polls or surveys
Polls and surveys are other forms of interaction that you should definitely consider adding to your site. They provide a quick way for visitors to voice their opinions and to get involved in your website. Be sure to publish polls or surveys that are strongly relevant to the target market of your website to keep them interested to find out about the results.

4) Hold puzzles, quizzes and games
Just imagine how many office workers procrastinate at work every day, and you will be able to gauge how many people will keep visiting your site if you provide a very interesting or addicting way of entertainment. You can also hold competitions to award the high score winner to keep people trying continuously to earn the prize.

5) Update frequently with fresh content
Update your site frequently with fresh content so that every time your visitors come back, they will have something to read on your site. This is the most widely known and most effective method of attracting returning visitors, but this is also the least carried out one because of the laziness of webmasters. No one will want to browse a site that looks the same over ten years, so keep your site updated with fresh bites!

fahry hadi kusuma


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July 8, 2009

5 Principles in Website Design


If you want to make a website or you want to build e-business, that use website as instrument, obey The Principles in Website Design is the best behaviour for you, and your business's future.

Here are five important rules of thumb to observe to make sure your website performs well.

1) Do not use splash pages

Splash pages are the first pages you see when you arrive at a website. They normally have a very beautiful image with words like "welcome" or "click here to enter". In fact, they are just that -- pretty vases with no real purpose. Do not let your visitors have a reason to click on the "back" button! Give them the value of your site up front without the splash page.

2) Do not use excessive banner advertisements

Even the least net savvy people have trained themselves to ignore banner advertisements so you will be wasting valuable website real estate. Instead, provide more valueable content and weave relevant affiliate links into your content, and let your visitors feel that they want to buy instead of being pushed to buy.

3) Make a simple navigation

You have to provide a simple and very straightforward navigation menu so that even a young child will know how to use it. Stay away from complicated Flash based menus or multi-tiered dropdown menus. If your visitors don't know how to navigate, they will leave your site.

4) Make a clear indication of where the user is

When visitors are deeply engrossed in browsing your site, you will want to make sure they know which part of the site they are in at that moment. That way, they will be able to browse relevant information or navigate to any section of the site easily. Don't confuse your visitors because confusion means "abandon ship"!

5) don't use audio on your site

If your visitor is going to stay a long time at your site, reading your content, you will want to make sure they're not annoyed by some audio looping on and on on your website. If you insist on adding audio, make sure they have some control over it -- volume or muting controls would work fine.

keep your website in 5 Principles above, When it comes to your website, extra attention should be paid to every minute detail to make sure it performs optimally to serve its purpose.



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July 6, 2009

Reksa dana syari’ah


“Orang-orang yang makan (mengambil) riba tidak dapat berdiri
melainkan seperti berdirinya orang yang kemasukan setan lantaran (tekanan) penyakit gila.Keadaan mereka yang demikian itu, adalah disebabkan mereka berkata (berpendapat), sesungguhnya jual beli itu sama dengan riba, padahal Allah telah menghalalkan jual beli dan mengharamkan riba. Orang-orang yang telah sampai kepadanya larangan dari Tuhannya, lalu terus berhenti (dari mengambil riba), maka baginya apa yang telah diambilnya dahulu (sebelum datang larangan); dan urusannya (terserah) kepada Allah. Orang yang mengulangi (mengambil riba), maka orang itu adalah penghuni-penghuni neraka; mereka kekal di dalamnya. (QS. 2:275)”

Reksa Dana adalah wadah yang dipergunakan untuk menghimpun dana dari masyarakat pemodal untuk selanjutnya diinvestasikan kembali dalam portofolio efek oleh Manajer Investasi.

Portofolio Efek adalah kumpulan efek yang dimiliki secara bersama (kolektif) oleh para pemodal dalam Reksa Dana.

Manajer Investasi adalah pihak yang kegiatan usahanya mengelola Portofolio Efek untuk para nasabah atau mengelola portofolio investasi kolektif untuk sekelompok nasabah.

Emiten adalah perusahaan yang menerbitkan Efek untuk ditawarkan kepada publik.

Efek adalah surat berharga, yaitu surat pengakuan utang, surat berharga komersial, saham, obligasi, tanda bukti utang, unit penyertaan kontrak investasi kolektif, kontrak berjangka atas efek, dan setiap derivatif dari efek.

Reksa Dana Syari'ah adalah Reksa Dana yang beroperasi menurut ketentuan dan prinsip Syari'ah Islam, baik dalam bentuk akad antara pemodal sebagai pemilik harta (sahib al-mal/ Rabb al Mal) dengan Manajer Investasi sebagai wakil shahib al-mal, maupun antara Manajer Investasi sebagai wakil shahib al-mal dengan pengguna investasi.

Mudharabah/qirad adalah suatu akad atau sistem di mana seseorang memberikan hartanya kepada orang lain untuk dikelola dengan ketentuan bahwa keuntungan yang diperoleh (dari hasil pengelolaan tersebut) dibagi antara kedua pihak, sesuai dengan syarat-syarat yang disepakati oleh kedua belah pihak, sedangkan kerugian ditanggung oleh shahib al-mal sepanjang tidak ada kelalaian dari mudharib.

Prospektus adalah setiap informasi tertulis sehubungan dengan Penawaran Umum dengan tujuan agar pihak lain membeli Efek.

Bank Kustodian adalah pihak yang kegiatan usahanya adalah memberikan jasa penitipan Efek dan harta lain yang berkaitan dengan Efek serta jasa lain, termasuk menerima deviden, dan hak-hak lain, menyelesaikan transaksi Efek, dan mewakili pemegang rekening yang menjadi nasabahnya.

Hal-hal terkait dengan mekanisme Dan hak- hak para investor Dan lain-lain diatur dengan FATWA DEWAN SYARI'AH NASIONAL NO: 20/DSN-MUI/IV/2001 Tentang PEDOMAN PELAKSANAAN INVESTASI UNTUK REKSA DANA SYARI'AH


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Asuransi syari’ah dan Reasuransi syari’ah


Indonesia merupakan Negara, dimana mayoritas penduduknya adalah pemeluk agama Islam. Namun demikian, perkembangan produk-produk dengan prinsip syariah baru berkembangn kurang lebih 3-4 tahun yang lalu, salah satunya adalah produk asuransi syariah yang dipelopori oleh PT Asuransi Takaful Indonesia yang berdiri pada tahun 1994.

Setelah itu, asuransi berbasis syariah mulai digarap oleh beberapa perusahaan dengan pendirian divisi syariah. Dengan terus berkembangnya produk-produk berbasis syariah, maka kami melihat pentingnya untuk memperkenalkan secara khusus produk asuransi syariah.

Sebelum masuk prinsip-prinsip dan mekanisme produk tersebut, banyak kalangan muslim yang beranggapan bahwa berasuransi adalah haram. Apakah benar? Ikut pembahasannya dibawah ini.

Asuransi Tidak Islami?

Sebagian kalangan Islam beranggapan bahwa asuransi sama dengan menentang qodlo dan qadar atau bertentangan dengan takdir. Pada dasarnya Islam mengakui bahwa kecelakaan, kemalangan dan kematian merupakan takdir Allah. Hal ini tidak dapat ditolak. Hanya saja kita sebagai manusia juga diperintahkan untuk membuat perencanaan untuk menghadapi masa depan. Allah berfirman dalam surat Al Hasyr: 18
“Hai orang-orang yang beriman bertaqwalah kepada Allah dan hendaklah setiap diri memperhatikan apa yang telah diperbuat untuk hari esok (masa depan) dan bertaqwalah kamu kepada Allah. Sesunguhnya Allah Maha mengetahui apa yang engkau kerjakan”.
Jelas sekali dalam ayat ini kita dipertintahkan untuk merencanakan apa yang akan kita perbuat untuk masa depan.

Dalam Al Qur’an, surat Yusuf :43-49, Allah menggambarkan contoh usaha manusia membentuk sistem proteksi menghadapai kemungkinan yang buruk dimasa depan. Secara ringkas, ayat ini bercerita tentang pertanyaan raja mesir tetang mimpinya kepada Nabi Yusuf. Dimana raja Mesir bermimpi melihat tujuh ekor sapi betina yang gemuk dimakan oleh tujuh ekor sapi yang kurus, dan dia juga melihat tujuh tangkai gandum yang hijau berbuah serta tujuh tangkai yang merah mengering tidak berbuah.

Nabi Yusuf dalam hal ini menjawab supaya kamu bertanam tujuh tahun dan dari hasilnya hendaklah disimpan sebagian. Kemudian sesudah itu akan datang tujuh tahun yang amat sulit, yang menghabiskan apa yang kamu simpan untuk menghadapapi masa sulit tesebut, kecuali sedikit dari apa yang disimpan.

Sangat jelas dalam ayat ini kita dianjurkan untuk berusaha menjaga kelangsungan kehidupan dengan meproteksi kemungkinan terjadinya kondisi yang buruk. Dan sangat jelas ayat diatas menyatakan bahwa berasurnasi tidak bertentangan dengan takdir, bahkan Allah menganjurkan adanya upaya-upaya menuju kepada perencanaan masa depan dengan sisitem proteksi yang dikenal dalam mekanisme asuransi.

Jadi, jika sistem proteksi atau asuransi dibenarkan, pertanyaan selanjutnya adalah: apakah asuransi yang kita kenal sekarang (asuransi konvensional) telah memenuhi syarat-syarat lain dalam konsep muamalat secara Islami. Dalam mekanisme asuransi konvensional terutama asuransi jiwa, paling tidak ada tiga hal yang masih diharamkan oleh para ulama, yaitu: adanya unsur gharar (ketidak jelasan dana), unsur maisir (judi/ gambling) dan riba (bunga). Ketiga hal ini akan dijelaskan dalam penjelasaan rinci mengenai perbedaan antara asuransi konvensional dan syariah.

Manfaat Asuransi Syariah

Asuransi syariah dapat menjadi alterntif pilihan proteksi bagi pemeluk agama Islam yang menginginkan produk yang sesuai dengan hukum Islam. Produk ini juga bisa menjadi pilihan bagi pemeluk agama lain yang memandang konsep syariah adil bagi mereka. Syariah adalah sebuah prinsip atau sistem yang ber-sifat universal dimana dapat dimanfaatkan oleh siapapun juga yang berminat. Demikianlah sekilas ulasan mengenai asuransi syariah. Semoga ulasan ini menambah wawasan dan pengetahuan anda.

FILOSOFIS ISLAM

filosofis ekonomi Islam menurut Adiwarman Karim, terbagi atas empat hal, yaitu : Pertama, prinsip tauhid, yaitu dimana kita meyakini akan kemahaesaan dan kemahakuasaan Allah SWT didalam mengatur segala sesuatunya, termasuk mekanisme perolehan rizki. Sehingga seluruh aktivitas, termasuk ekonomi, harus dilaksanakan sebagai bentuk penghambaan kita kepada Allah SWT secara total.

Yang kedua, prinsip keadilan dan keseimbangan, yang menjadi dasar kesejahteraan manusia. Karena itu, setiap kegiatan ekonomi haruslah senantiasa berada dalam koridor keadilan dan keseimbangan. Kemudian,

Yang ketiga adalah kebebasan. hal ini berarti bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebebasan untuk melaksanakan berbagai aktivitas ekonomi sepanjang tidak ada ketentuan Allah SWT yang melarangnya.

Selanjutnya yang keempat adalah pertanggungjwaban. Artinya bahwa manusia harus memikul seluruh tanggung jawab atas segala keputusan yang telah diambilnya


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July 5, 2009

Asuransi Konvensional Dan Syariah


Asuransi jiwa syariah dan asuransi jiwa konvensional mempunyai tujuan sama yaitu pengelolaan atau penanggulangan risiko. Perbedaan mendasar antara keduanya adalah cara pengelolaannya pengelolaan risiko asuransi konvensional berupa transfer risiko dari para peserta kepada perusahaan asuransi (risk transfer) sedangkan asuransi jiwa syariah menganut azas tolong menolong dengan membagi risiko diantara peserta asuransi jiwa (risk sharing).


Selain perbedaan cara pengelolaan risiko, ada perbedaan cara mengelola unsur tabungan produk asuransi. Pengelolaan dana pada asuransi jiwa syariah menganut investasi syariah dan terbebas dari unsur ribawi.

Secara rinci perbedaan antara asuransi jiwa syariah dan asuransi jiwa konvensional dapat dilihat pada uraian berikut :
Kontrak Atau Akad, Kejelasan kontrak atau akad dalam praktik muamalah menjadi prinsip karena akan menentukan sah atau tidaknya secara syariah. Demikian pula dengan kontrak antara peserta dengan perusahaan asuransi. Asuransi konvensional menerapkan kontrak yang dalam syariah disebut kontrak jual beli (tabaduli).

Dalam kontrak ini harus memenuhi syarat-syarat kontrak jual-beli. Ketidakjelasaan persoalan besarnya premi yang harus dibayarkan karena bergantung terhadap usia peserta yang mana hanya Allah yang tau kapan kita meninggal mengakibatkan asuransi konvensional mengandung apa yang disebut gharar —ketidakjelasaan pada kontrak sehingga mengakibatkan akad pertukaran harta benda dalam asuransi konvensional dalam praktiknya cacat secara hukum
Sehingga dalam asuransi jiwa syariah kontrak yang digunakan bukan kontrak jual beli melainkan kontrak tolong menolong (takafuli). Jadi asuransi jiwa syariah menggunakan apa yang disebut sebagai kontrak tabarru yang dapat diartikan sebagai derma atau sumbangan. Kontrak ini adalah alternatif uang sah dan dibenarkan dalam melepaskan diri dari praktik yang diharamkan pada asuransi konvensional.

Tujuan dari dana tabarru’ ini adalah memberikan dana kebajikan dengan niat ikhlas untuk tujuan saling membantu satu dengan yang lain sesama peserta asuransi syariah apabila diantaranya ada yang terkena musibah. Oleh karenanya dana tabarru’ disimpan dalam satu rekening khsusus, dimana bila terjadi risiko, dana klaim yang diberikan adalah dari rekening dana tabarru’ yang sudah diniatkan oleh semua peserta untuk kepentingan tolong menolong.

Kontrak Al-Mudharabah

Penjelasan di atas, mengenai kontrak tabarru’ merupakan hibah yang dialokasikan bila terjadi musibah. Sedangkan unsur di dalam asuransi jiwa bisa juga berupa tabungan. Dalam asuransi jiwa syariah, tabungan atau investasi harus memenuhi syariah.
Dalam hal ini, pola investasi bagi hasil adalah cirinya dimana perusahaan asuransi hanyalah pengelola dana yang terkumpul dari para peserta. Secara teknis, al-mudharabah adalah akad kerja sama usaha antara dua pihak dimana pihak pertama menyediakan seluruh (100 persen) modal, sedangkan pihak lainnya menjadi pengelola.

Keuntungan usaha secara mudharabah dibagi menurut kesepakatan yang dituangkan dalam kontrak, sedangkan apabila rugi, ditanggung oleh pemilik modal selama kerugian tersebut bukan akibat kelalaian di pengelola. Seandainya kerugian itu diakibatkan karena kecurangan atau kelalian si pengelola, maka pengelola harus bertanggung jawab atas kerugian tersebut.
Kontrak bagi hasil disepkati didepan sehingga bila terjadi keuntungan maka pembagiannya akan mengikuti kontrak bagi hasil tersebut. Misalkan kontrak bagi hasilnya adalah 60:40, dimana peserta mendapatkan 60 persen dari keuntungan sedang perusahaan asuransi mendapat 40 persen dari keuntungan.

Dalam kaitannya dengan investasi, yang merupakan salah satu unsur dalam premi asuransi, harus memenuhi syariah Islam dimana tidak mengenal apa yang biasa disebut riba. Semua asuransi konvensional menginvestasikan dananya dengan mekanisme bunga.
Dengan demikian asuransi konvensional susah untuk menghindari riba. Sedangkan asuransi syariah daolam berinvestasi harus menyimpan dananya ke berbagai investasi berdasarkan syariah Islam dengan sistem al-mudharabah.

Dana Hangus

Pada asuransi konvensional dikenal dana hangus, dimana peserta tidak dapat melanjutkan pembayaran premi dan ingin mengundurkan diri sebelum masa jatuh tempo. Begitu pula dengan asuransi jiwa konvensional non-saving (tidak mengandung unsur tabungan) atau asuransi kerugian, jika habis msa kontrak dan tidak terjadi klaim, maka premi asuransi yang sudah dibayarkan hangus atau menjadi keuntungan perusahaan asuransi.

Dalam konsep asuransi syariah, mekanismenya tidak mengenal dana hangus. Peserta yang baru masuk sekalipun karena satu dan lain hal ingin mengundurkan diri, maka dana atau premi yang sebelumnya sudah dibayarkan dapat diambil kembali kecuali sebagian kecil saja yang sudah diniatkan untuk dana tabarru’ yang tidak dapat diambil.

Begitu pula dengan asuransi syariah umum, jika habis masa kontrak dan tidak terjadi klaim, maka pihak perusahaan mengembalikan sebagian dari premi tersebut dengan pola bagi hasil, misalkan 60:40 atau 70:30 sesuai dengan kesepakatan kontrak di muka. Dalam hal ini maka sangat mungkin premi yang dibayarkan di awal tahun dapat diambil kembali dan jumlahnya sangat bergantung dengan tingkat investasi pada tahun tersebut.

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Bank syari’ah


Dengan diterbitkannya UU Perbankan Syariah, maka kewenangan absolut peradilan agama dalam memeriksa dan mengadili serta menyelesaikan perkara yang berkaitan dengan ekonomi syariah, khususnya sengketa perbankan syariah makin kuat, karena dalam Pasal 55 ayat (1) UU No. 21 Tahun 2008 tentang Perbankan Syariah ditentukan bahwa apabila terjadi sengketa Perbankan Syariah, maka yang berwewenang mengadili adalah pengadilan dalam lingkup peradilan agama. Pasal tersebut, sejalan dengan ketentuan Pasal 49 Undang-Undang No. 3 Tahun 2006 tentang Peradilan Agama. Dalam pasal tersebut ditentukan bahwa salah kewenangan absolut peradilan agama adalah memeriksa dan mengadili serta menyelesaikan sengketa ekonomi syariah.

Sebagai konsekuensi logis dari ketentuan tersebut, maka aparat peradilan agama, khususnya para hakim dituntut untuk terus meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kemampuan mereka dalam menangani perkara-perkara yang berkaitan dengan perbankan syariah.

Dalam rangka meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kemampuan serta keterampilan para hakim peradilan agama dalam memeriksa dan mengadili serta menyelesaikan sengketa ekonomi syariah, Mahkamah Agung RI telah menerbitkan Perma No. 02 Tahun 2008 tentang Kompilasi Hukum Ekonomi Syari’ah. Kompilasi tersebut, merupakan pedoman bagi para hakim di lingkungan peradilan agama dalam memeriksa, mengadili dan menyelesaikan perkara yang berkaitan dengan ekonomi syari’ah agar dapat memberikan putusan yang adil dan benar.

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